DR CLARE'S MATERIA MEDICA


Introduction to the Dispensing of  Dr Clare’s Blended Herbs

Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

Page:  1  2  3  4  (Next)
  ALL

R

Raspberry leaf (Red Raspberry)

(Last edited: Tuesday, 31 March 2015, 12:25 PM)

raspberry leafAlso Known As:

Framboise, Framboise Rouge, Framboisier Rouge, Framboisier Sauvage, Frambuesa Roja, Raspberry, Rubi Idaei Folium, Rubus.
CAUTION: See separate listing for Blackberry and Raspberry Ketone. 

Scientific Name:

Rubus idaeus, synonym Rubus buschii, Rubus strigosus.
Family: Rosaceae.

People Use This For:

Orally, red raspberry leaf is used for GI tract disorders, upper and lower respiratory tract disorders, cardiovascular system disorders, influenza, swine flu, fever, diabetes, vitamin deficiency, as a diaphoretic or diuretic, for stimulating bile production, "purification of skin and blood", diarrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, morning sickness associated with pregnancy, preventing miscarriage, and facilitating labor and delivery.

Topically, red raspberry leaf is used for inflammation of the mouth and throat, and skin rash and inflammation.
In foods, red raspberry is eaten as a fruit and processed into jams and other foods, and as a flavoring. Red raspberry leaf in small quantities is a source of natural flavoring in Europe.

Safety:

LIKELY SAFE ...when used orally in amounts commonly found in foods (9).
POSSIBLY SAFE ...when used orally and appropriately in medicinal amounts (4,5).
PREGNANCY: LIKELY SAFE ...when used orally in amounts commonly found in foods (9). POSSIBLY SAFE ...when red raspberry leaf is used orally and appropriately in medicinal amounts during late pregnancy and under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Red raspberry leaf is commonly used by nurse midwives to facilitate delivery. There is some evidence that red raspberry leaf can be safely used for this purpose (4,5). Make sure patients do not use red raspberry leaf without the guidance of a healthcare professional. LIKELY UNSAFE ...when used orally in medicinal amounts throughout pregnancy or for self-treatment. Red raspberry leaf might have estrogenic effects (3). These effects can adversely affect pregnancy. Tell pregnant patients not to use red raspberry leaf at any time during pregnancy without the close supervision of a healthcare provider.
LACTATION: There is insufficient reliable information available about the safety of using red raspberry leaf in medicinal amounts while breast-feeding; avoid using.

Effectiveness:

POSSIBLY INEFFECTIVE

Labor facilitation. Taking red raspberry leaf orally does not seem to reduce the length of labor or decrease the need for analgesics in the perinatal time period (5). There is insufficient reliable information available about the effectiveness of red raspberry leaf for its other uses. 

Machanism of Action:

The applicable parts of red raspberry are the fruit (berry) and leaf. Red raspberry contains anthocyanidins, ellagitannins, flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol, catechins, and phenolic acids. Other constituents include ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol (7,8 ,6). The contents of the fruit and leaves vary with maturity (8).
Red raspberry fruit seems to have antioxidant and vasodilatory properties (9). Preliminary research suggests a ketone constituent of red raspberry is structurally similar to capsaicin and synephrine, and might alter lipid metabolism. Theoretically, this compound might be useful as an anti-obesity agent (10).
Red raspberry leaf also appears to have antioxidant effects (8). The effects of red raspberry leaf on smooth muscle, such as that found in the uterus seems to be variable. Different constituents found in red raspberry leaf seem to either stimulate or contract uterine smooth muscle. When used in humans, red raspberry leaf might have either stimulatory or spasmolytic effects. There is some evidence that these effects might be dose and tissue dependent. For example, in low doses red raspberry leaf might cause more contraction, while higher doses might have spasmolytic effects and decrease contraction. Also, red raspberry might decrease contraction of tonic tissues and increase contraction of relaxed tissues (1,2). Red raspberry leaf might also have some estrogenic effects. In an animal model, red raspberry leaf seems to increase serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, which is a measure of estrogenic activity in the liver (3).

Adverse Reactions:

None reported.

Interactions with Foods:

None known.

Interactions with Lab Tests:

None known. 

Interactions with Diseases or Conditions:

HORMONE SENSITIVE CANCERS/CONDITIONS: Red raspberry leaf might have estrogenic effects (3). Women with hormone sensitive conditions should avoid red raspberry leaf including breast, uterine, and ovarian cancer, endometriosis, and uterine fibroids.

Dosage/Administration:

ORAL: For facilitating labor, midwives typically prescribe red raspberry leaf tea prepared by steeping 2 grams dried leaf in 240 mL of boiling water for 5 minutes and then straining (2). Red raspberry leaf tablets 2.4 grams per day have been used for reducing labor pains, starting at 32 weeks gestation through labor (5). 

Editor's Comments:

Red raspberry leaf extract has been used in Europe for centuries. The therapeutic use of red raspberry leaf was first described in 1597 in The Herbal, or a General History of Plants (1). 

Specific References: Raspberry

  1. Bamford DS, Percival RC, Tothill AU. Raspberry leaf tea: a new aspect to an old problem. Br J Pharmacol 1970;40:161P-162P 
  1. McFarlin BL, Gibson MH, O'Rear J, Harman P. A national survey of herbal preparation use by nurse-midwives for labor stimulation. Review of the literature and recommendations for practice. J Nurse Midwifery 1999;44:20516.

1. Eagon PK, Elm MS, Hunter DS, et al. Medicinal herbs: modulation of estrogen action. Era of Hope Mtg, Dept Defense; Breast Cancer Res Prog, Atlanta, GA 2000;Jun 8-11. 

2. Parsons M, Simpson M, Ponton T. Raspberry leaf and its effects on labour: safety and efficacy. Aust Coll Midwives Inc J 1999;12:20-5. 

3. Simpson M, Parsons M, Greenwood J, Wade K. Raspberry leaf in pregnancy: its safety and efficacy in labor. J Midwifery Womens Health 2001;46:51-9.

4. Wada L, Ou B. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Oregon caneberries. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:3495-500.

5. Wang SY, Jiao H. Scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:5677-84.

6. Wang SY, Lin HS. Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:140-6. 

7. Mullen W, McGinn J, Lean ME, et al. Ellagitannins, flavonoids, and other phenolics in red raspberries and their contribution to antioxidant capacity and vasorelaxation properties. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:5191-6.

8. Morimoto C, Satoh Y, Hara M, et al. Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone. Life Sci 2005;77:194-204. 

Entry link: 
  Raspberry leaf (Red Raspberry)

Red Clover

(Last edited: Tuesday, 31 March 2015, 12:28 PM)

Red CloverAlso known as:Meadow Clover, Trifolium, Wild Clover. 

Scientific name:Trifolium pratense.

Family: Fabaceae/Leguminosae.

Parts used: Flowering tops.

Traditional use.

Red clover is used for for its alterative action. It is anti-spasmodic, expectorant, sedative and acts on skin disorders. It is used for menopausal symptoms and hot flashes, cyclic breast pain or tenderness, premenstrual syndrome and for promotion of lymph flow.

Red clover is used as a flavoring ingredient In drinks and foods. 

Safety.

No concerns regarding safety when used orally in food amounts. Red clover has Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status for use in foods in the US.1.2.3

There are no concerns regarding safety when used in traditional medicinal amounts. There is no evidence for any concerns when Red clover extracts have been used for up to one year . 4,5,6,7,8,9 

Pregnancy: Refer to a medical herbalist.

Breastfeeding: Refer to a medical herbalist.

Constituents.

Isoflavones; afrormosan, biochanin A, daidzein, formononetin, genistein, pratensein, calyconin, pseudobaptigin, orobol.irilone, and trifoside, and their glycoside conjugates.

Other flavonoids, including pectolinarin and trifolin.

Coumarins;coumestrol,medicagol and coumarin.

Volatile oil;furfural.

Miscellaneous; clovamides, L-dopa-caffeic acid conjugates, minerals, vitamins and phytoalexins. 

Scientific evidence.

Breast Pain. Preliminary evidence suggests that red clover might relieve menstrual cycle breast pain. Red clover isoflavones 40-80 mg daily seem to reduce breast pain and tenderness in about 45% of patients.10 

Menopausal symptoms. There is conflicting evidence about the effects of red clover on menopausal symptoms. 6,9,11,12,13,14,15 

Mechanism of action.

The flowering tops contain more than 100 different chemicals. Red clover contains phytoestrogens (plant estrogens), which are structurally similar to estrogens. 4,16,17,18 The health effects of methylated isoflavones have not been evaluated.19

Similar to isoflavones from soy, red clover isoflavones might act as selective estrogen-receptor modulators.16,20 In premenopausal women with normal endogenous estrogen levels, isoflavones may have an anti-estrogen effect. In postmenopausal women with low endogenous estrogens, isoflavones are likely to act as weak estrogens. 21,22,23,24,25,26 It is suggested that red clover might have anti-anxiety effects due to its beta estrogen receptor agonist activity.9

Red clover is thought to be beneficial for preventing osteoporosis due to its weak estrogenic effects . 5,16,26. The isoflavones also appears to directly inhibit the breakdown of bone.19

Red clover isoflavones don't seem to lower cholesterol. 4,7,8 Some researchers still think that red clover might play a role in improving cardiovascular health by increasing bile acid excretion, up-regulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and lowering resistance in the systemic arterial blood vessels. 19,26,27,28,29. 

Adverse reactions.

Red clover is generally well tolerated. 6,7,8,9 It can rarely cause rash-like reactions, muscle pain, headache, nausea, and vaginal spotting.30 

There is some concern that red clover might increase the risk of endometrial hyperplasia due to its potential estrogenic effects. However, the ingestion of phytoestrogens in dietary amounts, 1-3 mg isoflavones per day, does not seem to increase the risk of endometrial cancer.3 Preliminary evidence also suggests that taking red clover isoflavones 50 mg daily does not have any significant effect on endometrial growth in women age 45-53 when taken for 3 months.18 

Interactions with herbs and supplements.

None reported. 

Interactions with drugs:

Tamoxifen (breast cancer treatment): Always consult an Herbal Medicine Physician.

Interactions with foods:

None known.

Interactions with laboratory tests:

None known.

Interactions with diseases or conditions:

Breast Cancer: Refer to an Herbal Medicine Physician.

None known. 

Dosage.

Recommended dose: 4-15mls per day 1:5 tincture 30% alcohol.

Insfusion: range from 2-6 tsps. per day.

Powder/capsule: 750mgs per day.

Raw herb: 4gms per day.

Liquid extract: 2-4mls/day.

Dr Clare’s Joint Cleansing Tea provides ½ tsp. per day of peppermint.

References.

1.  FDA. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Premarket Approval, EAFUS: A food additive database. Available at: vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/eafus.html. [Accessed 22/6/2014]

2.  Nelsen J, Barrette E, Tsouronix C, et al. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) monograph: A clinical decision support tool. J Herb Pharmacother. 2002;2:49-72.

3.  Horn-Ross PL, John EM, Canchola AJ, et al. Phytoestrogen intake and endometrial cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1158-64.

4.  Howes JB, Sullivan D, Lai N, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on the lipoprotein profiles of postmenopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis 2000;152:143-7.

5.  Atkinson C, Compston JE, Day NE, et al. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:326-33.

6.  van de Weijer P, Barentsen R. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas 2002;42:187-93.

7.  Schult TM, Ensrud KE, Blackwell T, et al. Effect of isoflavones on lipids and bone turnover markers in menopausal women. Maturitas 2004;48:209-18.

8.  Atkinson C, Oosthuizen W, Scollen S, et al. Modest protective effects of isoflavones from a red clover-derived dietary supplement on cardiovascular disease risk factors in perimenopausal women, and evidence of an interaction with ApoE genotype in 49-65 year-old women. J Nutr 2004;134:1759-64.

9.  Geller SE, Shulman LP, van Breemen RB, et al. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause 2009;16:1156-66.

10.  Ingram DM, Hickling C, West L, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of isoflavones in the treatment of cyclical mastalgia. The Breast 2002;11:170-4.

11.  Baber RJ, Templeman C, Morton T, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of an isoflavone supplement and menopausal symptoms in women. Climacteric 1999;2:85-92.

12.  Knight DC, Howes JB, Eden JA. The effect of Promensil, an isoflavone extract, on menopausal symptoms. Climacteric 1999;2:79-84.

13.  Nelson HD, Vesco KK, Haney E, et al. Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot flashes: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2006;295:2057-71.

14.  Krebs EE, Ensrud KE, MacDonald R, Wilt TJ. Phytoestrogens for treatment of menopausal symptoms: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:824-36.

15.  Lipovac M, Chedraui P, Gruenhut C, et al. Improvement of postmenopausal depressive and anxiety symptoms after treatment with isoflavones derived from red clover extracts. Maturitas 2010;65:258-61.

16.  Umland EM, Cauffield JS, Kirk JK, et al. Phytoestrogens as therapeutic alternatives to traditional hormone replacement in postmenopausal women. Pharmacotherapy 2000;20:981-90.

17.  Roberts DW, Doerge DR, Churchwell MI, et al. Inhibition of extrahepatic human cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 by metabolism of isoflavones found in Trifolium pratense (red clover). J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:6623-32.

18.  Hale GE, Hughes CL, Robboy SJ, et al. A doubleblind randomized study on the effects of red clover isoflavones on the endometrium. Menopause 2001;8:338-46.

19.  Anon. The role of isoflavones in menopausal health: consensus opinion of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2000;7:215-29.

20.  This P, De La Rochefordiere A, Clough K, et al. Phytoestrogens after breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer 2001;8:129-34.

21.  Zand RS, Jenkins DJ, Diamandis EP. Steroid hormone activity of flavonoids and related compounds. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2000;62:35-49.

22.  Baird DD, Umbach DM, Lansdell L, et al. Dietary intervention study to assess estrogenicity of dietary soy among postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:1685-90.

23.  Duncan AM, Underhill KE, Xu X, et al. Modest hormonal effects of soy isoflavones in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3479-84.

24.  Ginsburg J, Prelevic GM. Lack of significant hormonal effects and controlled trials of phyto-oestrogens. Lancet 2000;355:163-4.

25.  Hargreaves DF, Potten CS, Harding C, et al. Two-week dietary soy supplementation has an estrogenic effect on normal premenopausal breast. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:4017-24.

26.  Setchell KD, Cassidy A. Dietary isoflavones: biological effects and relevance to human health. J Nutr 1999;129:758S-67S.

27.  Nestel PJ, Pomeroy S, Kay S, et al. Isoflavones from red clover improve systemic arterial compliance but not plasma lipids in menopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:895-8.

28.  Lissin LW, Cooke JP. Phytoestrogens and cardiovascular health. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:1403-10.

29.  Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Beilin LJ, et al. Supplementation with isoflavonoid phytoestrogens does not alter serum lipid concentrations: a randomized controlled trial in humans. J Nutr 1998;128:728-32.

30.  Tice J, Cummings SR, Ettinger B, et al. Few adverse effects of two red clover extracts rich in phytoestrogens: a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Alt Ther 2001;7:S33.

Entry link: 
  Red Clover

Rose hips

(Last edited: Tuesday, 31 March 2015, 12:33 PM)

Rose hipsAlso Known As:

Apothecary Rose, Cynorhodon, Cynorhodons, Cynosbatos, Dog Rose, Dog Rose Hips, Églantier, Fruit de l'Églantier, Gulab, Heps, Hip, Hip Fruit, Hip Sweet, Hipberry, Hop Fruit, Persian Rose, Phool Gulab, Pink Rose, Poire d'oiseaux, Rosa de Castillo, Rosa Mosqueta, Rosae Pseudofructus Cum Semen, Rosehip, Rosehips, Rose Hips, Satapatri, Rose des Apothicaires, Rose de Provins, Rose Rouge de Lancaster, Rosier de Provence, Satapatrika, Shatpari, Wild Boar Fruit. 

CAUTION: See separate listings for Acerola, Vitamin C, and Cherokee Rosehip. 

Scientific Name:

Rosa canina, synonym Rosa lutetiana; Rosa alba; Rosa centifolia; Rosa damascena; Rosa gallica, synonym Rosa provincialis; Rosa rugosa; Rosa villosa, synonym Rosa pomifera; other Rosa species.
Family: Rosaceae.

People Use This For:

Orally, rose hip is used as a supplemental source of dietary vitamin C, for preventing and treating colds, influenza-like infections, infectious diseases, vitamin C deficiencies, fever, increasing immune function during exhaustion, gastric spasms, gastric acid deficiency, preventing gastric mucosal inflammation and gastric ulcers, and as a "stomach tonic" for intestinal diseases. It is also used orally for diarrhea, gallstones, gallbladder ailments, lower urinary tract and kidney disorders, dropsy (edema), gout, aging skin, disorders of uric acid metabolism, arthritis, sciatica, diabetes, increasing peripheral circulation, for reducing thirst, as a laxative and diuretic, and to treat chest ailments.
In foods and in manufacturing, it is used for rose hip tea, jam and soup, and as a natural source of vitamin C. 

Safety:

LIKELY SAFE ...when used orally and appropriately. Rose hip extract has Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status in the US (4912). A specific formulation of rose hip powder (LitoZin/i-flex, HybenVital, Denmark) taken in doses of 2.5 grams (5 capsules) twice daily has been safely used for 6 months (17416).
PREGNANCY AND LACTATION: Insufficient reliable information available; avoid using in amounts greater than those found in foods. 

Effectiveness:

INSUFFICIENT RELIABLE EVIDENCE to RATE

Rheumatoid arthritis. Preliminary clinical research shows that taking a specific rose hip powder product (LitoZin/i-flex, HybenVital, Denmark) 2.5 grams (5 capsules) twice daily over 6 months improves patient scores on a disability index as well as other subjective physician- and patient-based assessments (17416). More evidence is needed to rate rose hip for this use.

Mechanism of Action:

Rose hip contains pectin, citric acid, and malic acid, which can have laxative and diuretic activities (5,18). The diuretic activity is controversial (8). Fresh rose hip contains between 0.5-1.7% vitamin C (5,8) and is estimated to contain 1250 mg vitamin C per 100 grams of rose hip (6). However, much of the vitamin C is destroyed during drying and processing (11), and declines rapidly with storage (2). Vitamin C is required for collagen formation and tissue repair (15). It is an enzyme cofactor in the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, norepinephrine, and peptide hormones, and in tyrosine metabolism (3042). Vitamin C is also involved in oxidation-reduction reactions, conversion of folic acid to folinic acid, carbohydrate metabolism, synthesis of lipids and proteins, iron metabolism, resistance to infections, and cellular respiration (15). It acts as an antioxidant, decreasing oxidants in gastric juice, decreasing lipid peroxidation, and decreasing oxidative DNA and protein damage (3042). Vitamin C deficiency that lasts for three to five months results in symptomatic scurvy that affects collagenous structures, bones, and blood vessels (15). Vitamin C enhances the absorption of soluble non-heme iron, either by reducing it (converting ferric to ferrous) or by preventing chelation by phytates or other food ligands (3042). 

Adverse Reactions:

Orally, the adverse effects of vitamin C are related to the amount of vitamin C actually contained in the rose hip product. The adverse reactions include nausea; vomiting; esophagitis; heartburn; abdominal cramps; GI obstruction; fatigue; flushing; headache; insomnia; sleepiness; diarrhea; hyperoxaluria; and precipitation of urate, oxalate, or cysteine stones or drugs in the urinary tract (15). Large amounts are associated with deep vein thrombosis (15). The inhalation of the rose hip dust is reportedly a respiratory allergen in production workers. It can cause mild to moderate anaphylaxis (6).

Topically, the rose hip dust ("itching powder") can cause itching by mechanical irritation (6).

Interactions with Herbs & Supplements:

IRON: Concomitant use interacts with the vitamin C in rose hip; 200 mg of vitamin C per 30 mg of elemental iron increases oral iron absorption, especially ferric iron (3042).

Interactions with Drugs:

ALUMINUM <<interacts with>> ROSE HIP

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Severity = Mild • Occurrence = Probable • Level of Evidence = D

Concomitant use interacts with the vitamin C in rose hip and can increase aluminum absorption, but the clinical significance of this is unknown (3046). Administer rose hip with vitamin C two hours before or four hours after antacids (3046).

ASPIRIN <<interacts with>> ROSE HIP

Interaction Rating = Minor Be watchful with this combination.

Severity = Mild • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = D

The vitamin C in rose hip can increase urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and decrease excretion of salicylates, but this may not have a clinically significant effect on salicylate plasma levels (3046). 

CHOLINE MAGNESIUM TRISALICYLATE (Trilisate) <<interacts with>> ROSE HIP 

Interaction Rating = Minor Be watchful with this combination.

Severity = Mild • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = D

The vitamin C in rose hip can increase urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and decrease excretion of salicylates such as choline magnesium trisalicylate. But this may not have a clinically significant effect on salicylate plasma levels (3046).

ESTROGENS <<interacts with>> ROSE HIP

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Severity = Moderate • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = D

Theoretically, the vitamin C in large amounts of Cherokee rosehip might increase absorption and effects of estrogen (129,130).

FLUPHENAZINE (Prolixin) <<interacts with>> ROSE HIP

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Severity = Moderate • Occurrence = Probable • Level of Evidence = D

Concomitant use with rose hip decreases blood levels due to vitamin C content (15). 

LITHIUM <<interacts with>> ROSE HIP

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Severity = Moderate • Occurrence = Probable • Level of Evidence = D

Rose hip is thought to have diuretic properties. Theoretically, due to these potential diuretic effects, rose hip might reduce excretion and increase levels of lithium. The dose of lithium might need to be decreased.

SALSALATE (Disalcid) <<interacts with>> ROSE HIP

Interaction Rating = Minor Be watchful with this combination.

Severity = Mild • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = D

The vitamin C in rose hip can increase urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and decrease excretion of salicylates such as salsalate. But this may not have a clinically significant effect on salicylate plasma levels (3046).

WARFARIN (Coumadin) <<interacts with>> ROSE HIP

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Severity = High • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = D

Concomitant use interacts with the vitamin C in rose hip. Large amounts of vitamin C can impair the warfarin response (3046). 

Interactions with Foods:

IRON: Concomitant use interacts with the vitamin C in rose hip and can increase the absorption of dietary (ferric) iron (3042).

Interactions with Lab Tests:

ACETAMINOPHEN: The vitamin C in rose hip can cause false negative urine results with methods based on hydrolysis and formation of an indophenol blue chromagen (275).
ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (AST, SGOT): Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause a false increase in results of serum tests relying on color reactions (Redox reactions) and Technicon SMA 12/60 (275).
BILIRUBIN: Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause a false increase in serum test results measured by Technicon SMA 12/60 or colorimetric methods (275).
CALCIUM/SODIUM: 3-6 grams of vitamin C daily can cause a true increase in urinary calcium and test results (15) and a true decrease in urinary sodium and test results.
CARBAMAZEPINE (Tegretol): Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause falsely increased serum assay results measured by Ames ARIS method (275).
CREATININE: The vitamin C in rose hip can cause a false increase in serum creatinine or urine test results (275).
GLUCOSE: Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause false increases in urine test results measured by copper reduction methods (e.g., Clinitest) and false decreases in results measured by glucose oxidase methods (e.g., Clinistix, Tes-Tape) (15).

LDH: The vitamin C in rose hip can cause a false decrease measured by Technicon SMA 12/60 and Abbott 100 methods (275).
OCCULT BLOOD: The vitamin C in rose hip may cause false negative guaiac results to occur with 250 mg or more of vitamin C per day (3042).
THEOPHYLLINE: Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause falsely decreased serum assay results when measured by the ARIS system or Ames Seralyzer photometer (275).
URIC ACID: Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause a true decrease in serum uric acid concentrations and test results with enzymatic method assays (15).

Interactions with Diseases or Conditions:

DIABETES: The vitamin C in rose hip might affect glycogenolysis and the control of diabetes, but not all experts agree on this (15).
GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY: Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip might increase the risk of oxalate stone formation (15).
HEMOCHROMATOSIS, THALASSEMIA, SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA: Use rose hip with caution, because the vitamin C content can increase iron absorption, which could worsen this condition (15). INCREASED NEEDS: Vitamin C requirements increase in pregnancy, lactation, hyperthyroidism, stress, fever, infection, trauma, burns, smoking, and cold exposure (15). SICKLE CELL DISEASE: The vitamin C in rose hip rarely can decrease the blood pH, precipitating sickle cell crisis (15).

Dosage/Administration:

ORAL: The typical dose of rose hips is as a tea, which is prepared by steeping 2-2.5 grams of the crushed rose hips in 150 mL boiling water for 10-15 minutes and then straining(8). For rheumatoid arthritis, a specific rose hip powder product (LitoZin/i-flex, HybenVital, Denmark) 2.5 grams (5 capsules) twice daily has been used (17416).

Editor's Comments:

Rose hip with seed is the ripe, dried receptacle (hip) with fruit (seed) of various Rosa species, including dog rose (Rosa canina), white rose (Rosa alba), provence rose (Rosa centifolia), and damask rose (Rosa damascena). Avoid confusion with Cherokee rosehip, rose flower, and vitamin C. CAUTION: Sometimes rose hip seeds or plain rose hip receptacles without seeds are sold. These are different than rose hip with seed. Fresh rose hips contain a high concentration of vitamin C; however, much of the vitamin C is destroyed during drying and processing (11) and declines rapidly with storage (2). Many rose hip-derived "natural" vitamin C products are supplemented with synthetic vitamin C (6,11), but may not be clearly labeled accordingly (6).

Specific References: Rose Hips

2

 

Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.

5

 

Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 3rd ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1993.

6

 

The Review of Natural Products by Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co., 1999.

8

 

Wichtl MW. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Ed. N.M. Bisset. Stuttgart: Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, 1994.

11

 

Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

15

 

McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.

18

 

Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C. PDR for Herbal Medicines. 1st ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 1998.

129

 

Back DJ, Breckenridge AM, MacIver M, et al. Interaction of ethinyloestradiol with ascorbic acid in man. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;282:1516.

 

130

 

Morris JC, Beeley L, Ballantine N. Interaction of ethinyloestradiol with ascorbic acid in man [letter]. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;283:503.

275

 

Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.

3042

 

Levine M, Rumsey SC, Daruwala R, et al. Criteria and recommendations for vitamin C intake. JAMA 1999;281:1415-23.

3046

 

Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug Interactions Analysis and Management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics Inc., 1997 and updates.

4912

 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid= 786bafc6f6343634fbf79fcdca7061e1&rgn=div5&view= text&node=21:3.0.1.1.13&idno=21

Entry link: 
  Rose hips

Rosemary

(Last edited: Tuesday, 31 March 2015, 12:38 PM)

RosemaryAlso Known As:

Scientific Name:

People Use This For:

Safety:

Effectiveness:

Mechanism of Action:

Adverse Reactions:

Interactions with Herbs & Supplements:

Interactions with Drugs:

Interactions with Foods:

Interactions with Lab Tests:

Interactions with Diseases or Conditions:

Dosage/Administration:

Specific References: Rosemary

 

Entry link: 
  Rosemary


Page:  1  2  3  4  (Next)
  ALL