DR CLARE'S MATERIA MEDICA


Introduction to the Dispensing of  Dr Clare’s Blended Herbs

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H

Hawthorn

(Last edited: Thursday, 24 September 2015, 1:00 PM)

Hawthorn

 

hawthorn illustrationAlso Known As:

Crataegus, English Hawthorn, Whitethorn, Maybush, Maythorn.

 

Scientific Name:

Crataegus monogyna; Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus oxyacantha.

Family: Rosaceae.

 

People Use This For:

Hawthorn is used for cardiovascular conditions such as congestive heart failure, coronary circulation problems, angina, and arrhythmias. It is also used to increase cardiac output reduced by hypertension or pulmonary disease, to treat both hypotension and hypertension, atherosclerosis. Hawthorn is also used as a sedative, anxiolytic, antispasmodic, astringent, and diuretic. In manufacturing, hawthorn is used for making candied fruit slices, jam, jelly, and wine.

 

Safety:

No concerns regarding safety when used orally and appropriately, short-term.

Hawthorn preparations seem to be safe when used for up to 16 weeks.21,22,23,24,25

Pregnancy and Lactation: Refer to a Medical Herbalist.

 

Effectiveness:

POSSIBLY INEFFECTIVE

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF). There is contradictory evidence about the

effects of hawthorn extract in heart failure patients.

INSUFFICIENT RELIABLE EVIDENCE to RATE

Anxiety. Preliminary clinical research suggests hawthorn, combined with magnesium and California poppy (Sympathyl, not available in the US), might be useful in treating mild to moderate anxiety More evidence is needed to rate hawthorn for this use.

 

Mechanism of Action:

The applicable parts of hawthorn are the leaf, fruit, and flower. The constituents responsible for the pharmacological effects of hawthorn preparations include

flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. Hawthorn preparations act on the myocardium by increasing force of contraction and lengthening the refractory period, increasing coronary blood flow and cardiac output, and reducing oxygen consumption.24,27,28

Hawthorn's cardiotrophic properties are attributed to increased membrane permeability for calcium,

27 and phosphodiesterase inhibition, which increases cell energy efficiency leading to increased coronary blood flow, vasodilation, and positive effects on heart muscle contraction.27,28

Preliminary research suggests that hawthorn also normalizes the heart rate.28

Hawthorn also seems to have blood pressure lowering activity, according to preliminary research. It seems to cause arterial relaxation. The proantocyanidin constituents seem to cause this effect. 28

 

Adverse Reactions:

Hawthorn is generally well tolerated.24

Hawthorn preparations can uncommonly cause nausea, gastrointestinal complaints. Other side effects are rare.

 

Interactions with Herbs & Supplements:

May have additive effects with other herbs in reducing Blood Pressure. Refer to a Medical Herbalist.

 

Interactions with Drugs:

May have additive effects with drugs in reducing Blood Pressure. Refer to a Medical Herbalist.

 

Interactions with Foods:

None known.

 

Interactions with Lab Tests:

Cholesterol: Theoretically, hawthorn might lower blood levels total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and test results.28

Interactions with Diseases or Conditions:

Heart Failure: Refer to a Medical Herbalist.

 

Dosage/Administration:

Dr Clare’s Blends: Dose 455mgs per day. 1.5mls 1:3 Tincture. 400mgs-1gm daily.R2 pp.210

 

Specific References: HAWTHORN

21. Schmidt U, Kuhn U, Ploch M, Hubner WD. Efficacy of the Hawthorne (Crataegus) Preparation LI 132 in 78 patients with chronic congestive heart failure defined as NYHA functional class II. Phytomedicine 1994;1:17-24.

22. Zapfe jun G. Clinical efficacy of crataegus extract WS 1442 in congestive heart failure NYHA class II. Phytomedicine 2001;8:262-6.

23. Tauchert M. Efficacy and safety of crataegus extract WS 1442 in comparison with placebo in  patients with chronic stable New York Heart Association class-III heart failure. Am Heart J 2002;143:910-5.

24. Pittler MH, Schmidt K, Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med 2003;114:665-74.

25. Holubarsch CJ, Colucci WS, Meinertz T, et al. The efficacy and safety of Crataegus extract WS 1442 in patients with heart failure: the SPICE trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2008;10:1255-63.

26. Hanus M, Lafon J, Mathieu M. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed combination containing two plant extracts (Crataegus oxyacantha and Eschscholtzia californica) and magnesium inmild-to-moderate anxiety disorders. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20:63-71.

27. Schwinger RH, Pietsch M, Frank K, Brixius K. Crataegus special extract WS 1442 increases force of contraction in human myocardium cAMP-independently. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2000;35:700-7.

28. Chang Q, Zuo Z, Harrison F, Chow MS. Hawthorn. J Clin Pharmacol 2002;42:605-12.

Entry link: 
  Hawthorn

Horsetail

(Last edited: Thursday, 24 September 2015, 1:36 PM)

Horsetail

horsetail illustrationAlso Known As: Bottle Brush, Common Horsetail, Corn Horsetail, Dutch Rushes, Equiseti Herba, Field Horsetail, Herbe à Récurer, Horse Herb, Horse Willow, Paddock-Pipes, Pewterwort, Scouring Rush, Shave Grass, Spring Horsetail, Toadpipe.

 

Scientific Name:

Equisetum arvense; Equisetum telmateia, Equisetum hyemale.

Family: Equisetaceae.

 

People Use This For:

Horsetail is used for diuresis, edema, kidney and bladder stones, urinary tract infections, incontinence and general disturbances of the kidney and bladder. It is also used for hair loss; tuberculosis;jaundice; hepatitis; brittle fingernails; rheumatic diseases; gout; osteoarthritis; osteoporosis; frostbite; weight loss; menorrhagia; and nasal, pulmonary, and gastric hemorrhage.

Topically, horsetail is used for treatment of wounds and burns.

 

Safety:

POSSIBLY UNSAFE ...when used orally long-term. Horsetail contains thiaminase, an enzyme that can cause thiamine deficiency. In Canada, horsetail products are required to be thiaminase-free, but there is not enough reliable information to know if thiaminase-free products are safe (3).

PREGNANCY AND LACTATION: Insufficient reliable information available; avoid using.

 

Scientific evidence:

Not enough scientific research has been done on Horsetail to comment on effectiveness.

 

Mechanism of Action:

The applicable parts of horsetail are above ground parts. Horsetail constituents include flavonoids such as apigenin, luteolin, and kaempferol and quercetin compounds; petrosins such as onitin; caffeic acid derivatives; sterols; tannins; and saponins (6, 7, 9). Horsetail also contains significant amounts of silicon (4). Horsetail also contains trace amounts of nicotine (4). Preliminary research suggests aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of horsetail have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects (8, 10,11).

Horsetail extracts might also have vasorelaxant and analgesic effects (7, 11).

Other research suggests horsetail extracts might have sedative and anticonvulsant effects (8).

Flavonoid and petrosin constituents might have hepatoprotective properties (6). Other preliminary research suggests that horsetail might have antiviral effects (12).

Crude horsetail contains thiaminase, an enzyme that destroys thiamine (vitamin B1). Thiaminase-containing plants have been associated with neurological toxicity in animals due to thiamine deficiency (12, 14, 15).

Other related horsetail (Equisetum) species have diuretic and hypoglycemic properties (16, 17, 18). Whether horsetail has these effects is unclear.

 

Side effects:

Crude horsetail may lead to thiamine deficiency with prolonged consumption. Canadian products are required to be certified as free from thiaminase-like effect (3). Horsetail has also been associated with cross allergenicity with carrots (19).

Horsetail contains tiny amounts of nicotine and may cause nicotine allergy or theoretically, nicotine toxicity if taken in large quantities (5).

Topically, horsetail can cause seborrheic dermatitis (5).

 

Interactions with Herbs & Supplements:

Betel nuts: Consuming horsetail with betel nuts might increase the risk of thiamine deficiency. Areca (betel) nuts reduce thiamine activity, probably by chemical inactivation (2). Horsetail contains thiaminase, which breaks down thiamine (13, 14, 15).

CHROMIUM-CONTAINING HERBS AND SUPPLEMENTS: Horsetail contains

chromium (0.0006%) and could increase the risk of chromium toxicity when taken

with chromium supplements or chromium-containing herbs such as bilberry, brewer's yeast, or cascara (1).

THIAMINE: Crude horsetail contains thiaminase, which breaks down thiamine. Chronic ingestion in animals has been associated with thiamine deficiency (13, 14, 15).

Possible Interactions with Drugs:

LITHIUM

In keeping with all herbs and medications that have a diuretic action the blood levels of Lithium may be sensitive to the diuretic effect.

Horsetail is thought to have diuretic properties. Theoretically, due to these potential diuretic effects, horsetail might reduce excretion and increase levels of lithium. The dose of lithium might need to be decreased.

 

Interactions with Foods:

None known.

 

Interactions with Lab Tests:

None known.

 

Interactions with Diseases or Conditions:

Diabetes:

Other horsetail species have hypoglycemic activity (18). It is unclear whether horsetail has hypoglycemic effects. Until more is known, bear this in mind when using in the context of diabetes. Monitor blood sugar levels to assess any effects.

Low blood potassium:

Other horsetail species have diuretic activity and can increase the excretion of potassium (16, 17). Until more is known, use with caution in patients who are at risk for potassium deficiency.

Thiamine deficiency:

Theoretically, horsetail can cause or exacerbate thiamine deficiency (13, 14, 15). No cases have been reported in humans. For every three continuous use take a break for three weeks.

 

Dosage/Administration:

No typical dosage.

 

Specific References: HORSETAIL

1. Lanca S, Alves A, Vieira AI, et al. Chromium-induced toxic hepatitis. Eur J Intern Med 2002;13:518-20.

2. Vimokesant S, Kunjara S, Rungruangsak K, et al. Beriberi caused by antithiamin factors in food and its prevention. Ann N YAcad Sci 1982;378:123-36.

3. Health Canada. Labelling Standard: Mineral Supplements. Available at:

http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/applic-demande/guide-ld/label-etiquet-pharm/minsup_e.html (Accessed 14 November 2005).

4. Piekos R, Paslawska S. Studies on the optimum conditions of extraction of silicon species from plants with water. I. Equisetum arvense L. Herb. Planta Med 1975;27:145-50.

5. Sudan BJ. Seborrhoeic dermatitis induced by nicotine of horsetails (Equisetum arvense L.). Contact Dermatitis 1985;13:201-2.

6. Oh H, Kim DH, Cho JH, Kim YC. Hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging activities of phenolic petrosins and flavonoids isolated from Equisetum arvense. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95:421-4.

7. Sakurai N, Iizuka T, Nakayama S, et al. [Vasorelaxant activity of caffeic acid derivatives from Cichorium intybus and Equisetum arvense]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2003;123:593-8.

8. Dos Santos JG Jr, Blanco MM, Do Monte FH, et al. Sedative and

anticonvulsant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Equisetum arvense.

Fitoterapia 2005;76:508-13.

9. Langhammer L, Blaszkiewitz K, Kotzorek I. Evidence of  toxic adulteration

of equisetum. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 1972;112:1751-94.

10. Correia H, Gonzalez-Paramas A, Amaral MT, et al. Characterisation of

polyphenols by HPLC-PAD-ESI/MS and antioxidant activity in Equisetum

telmateia. Phytochem Anal 2005;16:380-7.

11. Do Monte FH, dos Santos JG Jr, Russi M, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydroalcoholic extract of stems from Equisetum arvense L. in mice. Pharmacol Res 2004;49:239-43.

12. Husson GP, Vilagines R, Delaveau P. [Antiviral properties of various extracts of natural origin]. Ann Pharm Fr 1986; 44:41-8.

13. Ramos JJ, Ferrer LM, Garcia L, et al. Polioencephalomalacia in adult

sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed. Can Vet J 2005;46:59-61.

14. Henderson JA, Evans EV, McIntosh RA. The antithiamine action of Equisetum. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1952;120:375-8.

15. Fabre B, Geay B, Beaufils P. Thiaminase activity in equisetum arvense

and its extracts. Plant Med Phytother 1993;26:190-7.

16. Perez Gutierrez RM, Laguna GY, Walkowski A. Diuretic activity of Mexican equisetum. J Ethnopharmacol 1985;14:269-72.

17. Lemus I, Garcia R, Erazo S, et al. Diuretic activity of an Equisetum bogotense tea (Platero herb): evaluation in healthy volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;54:55-8.

18. Revilla MC, Andrade-Cetto A, Islas S, Wiedenfeld H. Hypoglycemic effect of Equisetum myriochaetum aerial parts on type 2 diabetic patients. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:117-20.

19. Agustin-Ubide MP, Martinez-Cocera C, Alonso-Llamazares A, et al. Diagnostic approach to anaphylaxis by carrot, related vegetables and horsetail (Equisetum arvense) in a homemaker. Allergy 2004;59:786-7.

Entry link: 
  Horsetail

Hyssop

(Last edited: Thursday, 24 September 2015, 2:09 PM)

Hyssop

 

hyssop illustrationAlso Known As:

Hysope Officinale.

 

Scientific Name:

Hyssopus officinalis.

Family: Lamiaceae/Labiatae.

 

People Use This For:

Hyssop is used for liver and gallbladder conditions, intestinal inflammation,

coughs, the common cold, respiratory infections, sore throat, asthma, urinary

tract infection, flatulence and colic, anorexia, poor circulation, painful periods, and for digestive and intestinal problems.

 

Safety:

No concerns regarding safety when used orally in amounts commonly found in foods. Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status in the US.(12)

Pregnancy and Lactation: Refer to a Medical Herbalist.

 

Effectiveness:

There is insufficient scientific information available about the effectiveness of hyssop.

 

Mechanism of Action:

The applicable parts of hyssop are the above ground parts. Constituent marrubiin (13)

has cardioactive effects and stimulates bronchial secretions. (14)

Caffeic acid and tannins may be the active constituents of the dried leaves. Extracts show antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus and HIV in vitro. (15,13)

 

Adverse Reactions:

None reported with tincture or infusion.

 

Interactions with Herbs & Supplements:

None known.

 

Interactions with Drugs:

None known.

 

Interactions with Foods:

None known.

 

Interactions with Lab Tests:

None known.

 

Interactions with Diseases or Conditions:

None reported with tincture or infusion.

 

Dosage/Administration:

Dr Clare’s Blends:

To check

Oral: Typically people take two 445 mg capsules containing the hyssop herb

three times daily. (16)

Some people take 10-15 drops of the hyssop extract (12-14% by volume) in water two to three times daily. (17)

People also consume or gargle the hyssop tea three times daily. (18)

The tea is prepared by steeping 1-2 teaspoons of the dried hyssop flower tops in 150 mL boiling water for 10-15 minutes and then straining. Avoid internal use of hyssop oil due to possible neurotoxicity.

 

Specific References: HYSSOP

12. FDA. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Premarket Approval, EAFUS: A

food additive database. Available at: vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/eafus.html.

13. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and

Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

14. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Philpson JD. Herbal Medicine: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London, UK: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.

15. The Review of Natural Products by Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co., 1999.

16. Manufacturer: Nature's Way. Springville, UT.

17. Manufacturer: Nature's Answer. Hanppange, NY.

18. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.

Entry link: 
  Hyssop


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