Apothecary Rose, Cynorhodon, Cynorhodons, Cynosbatos, Dog Rose, Dog Rose Hips, Églantier, Fruit de l'Églantier, Gulab, Heps, Hip, Hip Fruit, Hip Sweet, Hipberry, Hop Fruit, Persian Rose, Phool Gulab, Pink Rose, Poire d'oiseaux, Rosa de Castillo, Rosa Mosqueta, Rosae Pseudofructus Cum Semen, Rosehip, Rosehips, Rose Hips, Satapatri, Rose des Apothicaires, Rose de Provins, Rose Rouge de Lancaster, Rosier de Provence, Satapatrika, Shatpari, Wild Boar Fruit.
CAUTION: See separate listings for Acerola, Vitamin C, and Cherokee Rosehip.
Rosa canina, synonym Rosa lutetiana; Rosa alba; Rosa centifolia; Rosa damascena; Rosa gallica, synonym Rosa provincialis; Rosa rugosa; Rosa villosa, synonym Rosa pomifera; other Rosa species. Family: Rosaceae.
People Use This For:
Orally, rose hip is used as a supplemental source of dietary vitamin C, for preventing and treating colds, influenza-like infections, infectious diseases, vitamin C deficiencies, fever, increasing immune function during exhaustion, gastric spasms, gastric acid deficiency, preventing gastric mucosal inflammation and gastric ulcers, and as a "stomach tonic" for intestinal diseases. It is also used orally for diarrhea, gallstones, gallbladder ailments, lower urinary tract and kidney disorders, dropsy (edema), gout, aging skin, disorders of uric acid metabolism, arthritis, sciatica, diabetes, increasing peripheral circulation, for reducing thirst, as a laxative and diuretic, and to treat chest ailments. In foods and in manufacturing, it is used for rose hip tea, jam and soup, and as a natural source of vitamin C.
LIKELY SAFE ...when used orally and appropriately. Rose hip extract has Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status in the US (4912). A specific formulation of rose hip powder (LitoZin/i-flex, HybenVital, Denmark) taken in doses of 2.5 grams (5 capsules) twice daily has been safely used for 6 months (17416). PREGNANCY AND LACTATION: Insufficient reliable information available; avoid using in amounts greater than those found in foods.
Rheumatoid arthritis. Preliminary clinical research shows that taking a specific rose hip powder product (LitoZin/i-flex, HybenVital, Denmark) 2.5 grams (5 capsules) twice daily over 6 months improves patient scores on a disability index as well as other subjective physician- and patient-based assessments (17416). More evidence is needed to rate rose hip for this use.
Mechanism of Action:
Rose hip contains pectin, citric acid, and malic acid, which can have laxative and diuretic activities (5,18). The diuretic activity is controversial (8). Fresh rose hip contains between 0.5-1.7% vitamin C (5,8) and is estimated to contain 1250 mg vitamin C per 100 grams of rose hip (6). However, much of the vitamin C is destroyed during drying and processing (11), and declines rapidly with storage (2). Vitamin C is required for collagen formation and tissue repair (15). It is an enzyme cofactor in the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, norepinephrine, and peptide hormones, and in tyrosine metabolism (3042). Vitamin C is also involved in oxidation-reduction reactions, conversion of folic acid to folinic acid, carbohydrate metabolism, synthesis of lipids and proteins, iron metabolism, resistance to infections, and cellular respiration (15). It acts as an antioxidant, decreasing oxidants in gastric juice, decreasing lipid peroxidation, and decreasing oxidative DNA and protein damage (3042). Vitamin C deficiency that lasts for three to five months results in symptomatic scurvy that affects collagenous structures, bones, and blood vessels (15). Vitamin C enhances the absorption of soluble non-heme iron, either by reducing it (converting ferric to ferrous) or by preventing chelation by phytates or other food ligands (3042).
Orally, the adverse effects of vitamin C are related to the amount of vitamin C actually contained in the rose hip product. The adverse reactions include nausea; vomiting; esophagitis; heartburn; abdominal cramps; GI obstruction; fatigue; flushing; headache; insomnia; sleepiness; diarrhea; hyperoxaluria; and precipitation of urate, oxalate, or cysteine stones or drugs in the urinary tract (15). Large amounts are associated with deep vein thrombosis (15). The inhalation of the rose hip dust is reportedly a respiratory allergen in production workers. It can cause mild to moderate anaphylaxis (6).
Topically, the rose hip dust ("itching powder") can cause itching by mechanical irritation (6).
Interactions with Herbs & Supplements:
IRON: Concomitant use interacts with the vitamin C in rose hip; 200 mg of vitamin C per 30 mg of elemental iron increases oral iron absorption, especially ferric iron (3042).
Concomitant use interacts with the vitamin C in rose hip and can increase aluminum absorption, but the clinical significance of this is unknown (3046). Administer rose hip with vitamin C two hours before or four hours after antacids (3046).
The vitamin C in rose hip can increase urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and decrease excretion of salicylates, but this may not have a clinically significant effect on salicylate plasma levels (3046).
CHOLINE MAGNESIUM TRISALICYLATE (Trilisate) <<interacts with>> ROSE HIP
The vitamin C in rose hip can increase urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and decrease excretion of salicylates such as choline magnesium trisalicylate. But this may not have a clinically significant effect on salicylate plasma levels (3046).
Rose hip is thought to have diuretic properties. Theoretically, due to these potential diuretic effects, rose hip might reduce excretion and increase levels of lithium. The dose of lithium might need to be decreased.
The vitamin C in rose hip can increase urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and decrease excretion of salicylates such as salsalate. But this may not have a clinically significant effect on salicylate plasma levels (3046).
Concomitant use interacts with the vitamin C in rose hip. Large amounts of vitamin C can impair the warfarin response (3046).
Interactions with Foods:
IRON: Concomitant use interacts with the vitamin C in rose hip and can increase the absorption of dietary (ferric) iron (3042).
Interactions with Lab Tests:
ACETAMINOPHEN: The vitamin C in rose hip can cause false negative urine results with methods based on hydrolysis and formation of an indophenol blue chromagen (275). ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (AST, SGOT): Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause a false increase in results of serum tests relying on color reactions (Redox reactions) and Technicon SMA 12/60 (275). BILIRUBIN: Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause a false increase in serum test results measured by Technicon SMA 12/60 or colorimetric methods (275). CALCIUM/SODIUM: 3-6 grams of vitamin C daily can cause a true increase in urinary calcium and test results (15) and a true decrease in urinary sodium and test results. CARBAMAZEPINE (Tegretol): Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause falsely increased serum assay results measured by Ames ARIS method (275). CREATININE: The vitamin C in rose hip can cause a false increase in serum creatinine or urine test results (275). GLUCOSE: Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause false increases in urine test results measured by copper reduction methods (e.g., Clinitest) and false decreases in results measured by glucose oxidase methods (e.g., Clinistix, Tes-Tape) (15).
LDH: The vitamin C in rose hip can cause a false decrease measured by Technicon SMA 12/60 and Abbott 100 methods (275). OCCULT BLOOD: The vitamin C in rose hip may cause false negative guaiac results to occur with 250 mg or more of vitamin C per day (3042). THEOPHYLLINE: Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause falsely decreased serum assay results when measured by the ARIS system or Ames Seralyzer photometer (275). URIC ACID: Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip can cause a true decrease in serum uric acid concentrations and test results with enzymatic method assays (15).
Interactions with Diseases or Conditions:
DIABETES: The vitamin C in rose hip might affect glycogenolysis and the control of diabetes, but not all experts agree on this (15). GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY: Large amounts of the vitamin C in rose hip might increase the risk of oxalate stone formation (15). HEMOCHROMATOSIS, THALASSEMIA, SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA: Use rose hip with caution, because the vitamin C content can increase iron absorption, which could worsen this condition (15). INCREASED NEEDS: Vitamin C requirements increase in pregnancy, lactation, hyperthyroidism, stress, fever, infection, trauma, burns, smoking, and cold exposure (15). SICKLE CELL DISEASE: The vitamin C in rose hip rarely can decrease the blood pH, precipitating sickle cell crisis (15).
ORAL: The typical dose of rose hips is as a tea, which is prepared by steeping 2-2.5 grams of the crushed rose hips in 150 mL boiling water for 10-15 minutes and then straining(8). For rheumatoid arthritis, a specific rose hip powder product (LitoZin/i-flex, HybenVital, Denmark) 2.5 grams (5 capsules) twice daily has been used (17416).
Rose hip with seed is the ripe, dried receptacle (hip) with fruit (seed) of various Rosa species, including dog rose (Rosa canina), white rose (Rosa alba), provence rose (Rosa centifolia), and damask rose (Rosa damascena). Avoid confusion with Cherokee rosehip, rose flower, and vitamin C. CAUTION: Sometimes rose hip seeds or plain rose hip receptacles without seeds are sold. These are different than rose hip with seed. Fresh rose hips contain a high concentration of vitamin C; however, much of the vitamin C is destroyed during drying and processing (11) and declines rapidly with storage (2). Many rose hip-derived "natural" vitamin C products are supplemented with synthetic vitamin C (6,11), but may not be clearly labeled accordingly (6).
Specific References: Rose Hips
Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 3rd ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1993.
The Review of Natural Products by Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co., 1999.
Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.
Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C. PDR for Herbal Medicines. 1st ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 1998.
Back DJ, Breckenridge AM, MacIver M, et al. Interaction of ethinyloestradiol with ascorbic acid in man. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;282:1516.
Morris JC, Beeley L, Ballantine N. Interaction of ethinyloestradiol with ascorbic acid in man [letter]. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;283:503.
Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.
Levine M, Rumsey SC, Daruwala R, et al. Criteria and recommendations for vitamin C intake. JAMA 1999;281:1415-23.
Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug Interactions Analysis and Management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics Inc., 1997 and updates.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid= 786bafc6f6343634fbf79fcdca7061e1&rgn=div5&view= text&node=21:22.214.171.124.13&idno=21