is used for cardiovascular conditions such as congestive heart failure, coronary
circulation problems, angina, and arrhythmias. It is also used to increase
cardiac output reduced by hypertension or pulmonary disease, to treat both
hypotension and hypertension, atherosclerosis. Hawthorn is also used as a sedative,
anxiolytic, antispasmodic, astringent, and diuretic. In manufacturing, hawthorn
is used for making candied fruit slices, jam, jelly, and wine.
concerns regarding safety when used orally and appropriately, short-term.
preparations seem to be safe when used for up to 16 weeks.21,22,23,24,25
and Lactation: Refer to a Medical Herbalist.
Heart Failure (CHF). There is contradictory evidence about the
of hawthorn extract in heart failure patients.
RELIABLE EVIDENCE to RATE
Preliminary clinical research suggests hawthorn, combined with magnesium and
California poppy (Sympathyl, not available in the US), might be useful in
treating mild to moderate anxiety More evidence is needed to rate hawthorn for
Mechanism of Action:
applicable parts of hawthorn are the leaf, fruit, and flower. The constituents responsible
for the pharmacological effects of hawthorn preparations include
and proanthocyanidins. Hawthorn preparations act on the myocardium by
increasing force of contraction and lengthening the refractory period, increasing
coronary blood flow and cardiac output, and reducing oxygen consumption.24,27,28
cardiotrophic properties are attributed to increased membrane permeability for
27 and phosphodiesterase inhibition,
which increases cell energy efficiency leading to increased coronary blood
flow, vasodilation, and positive effects on heart muscle contraction.27,28
research suggests that hawthorn also normalizes the heart rate.28
also seems to have blood pressure lowering activity, according to preliminary
research. It seems to cause arterial relaxation. The proantocyanidin constituents
seem to cause this effect. 28
is generally well tolerated.24
preparations can uncommonly cause nausea, gastrointestinal complaints. Other
side effects are rare.
Interactions with Herbs & Supplements:
additive effects with other herbs in reducing Blood Pressure. Refer to a Medical
Interactions with Drugs:
additive effects with drugs in reducing Blood Pressure. Refer to a Medical
Interactions with Foods:
Interactions with Lab Tests:
Theoretically, hawthorn might lower blood levels total and low density
lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and test results.28
Interactions with Diseases or Conditions:
Failure: Refer to a Medical Herbalist.
Clare’s Blends: Dose 455mgs per day. 1.5mls 1:3 Tincture. 400mgs-1gm daily.R2
Specific References: HAWTHORN
Schmidt U, Kuhn U, Ploch M, Hubner WD. Efficacy of the Hawthorne (Crataegus) Preparation
LI 132 in 78 patients with chronic congestive heart failure defined as NYHA
functional class II. Phytomedicine 1994;1:17-24.
jun G. Clinical efficacy of crataegus extract WS 1442 in congestive heart
failure NYHA class II. Phytomedicine 2001;8:262-6.
Tauchert M. Efficacy and safety of crataegus extract WS 1442 in comparison with
placebo in patients with chronic stable
New York Heart Association class-III heart failure. Am Heart J 2002;143:910-5.
Pittler MH, Schmidt K, Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart
failure: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med 2003;114:665-74.
Holubarsch CJ, Colucci WS, Meinertz T, et al. The efficacy and safety of
Crataegus extract WS 1442 in patients with heart failure: the SPICE trial. Eur
J Heart Fail 2008;10:1255-63.
M, Lafon J, Mathieu M. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate
the efficacy and safety of a fixed combination containing two plant extracts
(Crataegus oxyacantha and Eschscholtzia californica) and magnesium inmild-to-moderate
anxiety disorders. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20:63-71.
Schwinger RH, Pietsch M, Frank K, Brixius K. Crataegus special extract WS 1442
increases force of contraction in human myocardium cAMP-independently. J
Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2000;35:700-7.
Q, Zuo Z, Harrison F, Chow MS. Hawthorn. J Clin Pharmacol 2002;42:605-12.