used for cardiovascular conditions such as congestive heart
failure, coronary circulation problems, angina, and arrhythmias.
It is also used to increase cardiac output reduced by
hypertension or pulmonary disease, to treat both hypotension and
hypertension, atherosclerosis. Hawthorn is also used as a
sedative, anxiolytic, antispasmodic, astringent, and diuretic. In
manufacturing, hawthorn is used for making candied fruit slices,
jam, jelly, and wine.
concerns regarding safety when used orally and appropriately,
preparations seem to be safe when used for up to 16
Lactation: Refer to a Medical Herbalist.
Heart Failure (CHF). There is contradictory evidence about
hawthorn extract in heart failure patients.
RELIABLE EVIDENCE to RATE
Preliminary clinical research suggests hawthorn, combined with
magnesium and California poppy (Sympathyl, not available in the
US), might be useful in treating mild to moderate anxiety More
evidence is needed to rate hawthorn for this use.
applicable parts of hawthorn are the leaf, fruit, and flower. The
constituents responsible for the pharmacological effects of
hawthorn preparations include
proanthocyanidins. Hawthorn preparations act on the myocardium by
increasing force of contraction and lengthening the refractory
period, increasing coronary blood flow and cardiac output, and
reducing oxygen consumption.24,27,28
cardiotrophic properties are attributed to increased membrane
permeability for calcium,
phosphodiesterase inhibition, which increases cell energy
efficiency leading to increased coronary blood flow,
vasodilation, and positive effects on heart muscle
research suggests that hawthorn also normalizes the heart
seems to have blood pressure lowering activity, according to
preliminary research. It seems to cause arterial relaxation. The
proantocyanidin constituents seem to cause this effect.28
generally well tolerated.24
preparations can uncommonly cause nausea, gastrointestinal
complaints. Other side effects are rare.
with Herbs & Supplements:
have additive effects with other herbs in reducing Blood
Pressure. Refer to a Medical Herbalist.
have additive effects with drugs in reducing Blood Pressure.
Refer to a Medical Herbalist.
with Lab Tests:
Theoretically, hawthorn might lower blood levels total and low
density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and test
with Diseases or Conditions:
Refer to a Medical Herbalist.
Clare’s Blends: Dose 455mgs per day. 1.5mls 1:3 Tincture.
400mgs-1gm daily.R2 pp.210
21. Schmidt U,
Kuhn U, Ploch M, Hubner WD. Efficacy of the Hawthorne (Crataegus)
Preparation LI 132 in 78 patients with chronic congestive heart
failure defined as NYHA functional class II. Phytomedicine
22. Zapfe jun
G. Clinical efficacy of crataegus extract WS 1442 in congestive
heart failure NYHA class II. Phytomedicine 2001;8:262-6.
M. Efficacy and safety of crataegus extract WS 1442 in comparison
with placebo in patients with chronic stable New York Heart
Association class-III heart failure. Am Heart J
MH, Schmidt K, Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic
heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med
CJ, Colucci WS, Meinertz T, et al. The efficacy and safety of
Crataegus extract WS 1442 in patients with heart failure: the
SPICE trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2008;10:1255-63.
26. Hanus M,
Lafon J, Mathieu M. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled
study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed combination
containing two plant extracts (Crataegus oxyacantha and
Eschscholtzia californica) and magnesium inmild-to-moderate
anxiety disorders. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20:63-71.
RH, Pietsch M, Frank K, Brixius K. Crataegus special extract WS
1442 increases force of contraction in human myocardium
cAMP-independently. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2000;35:700-7.
28. Chang Q,
Zuo Z, Harrison F, Chow MS. Hawthorn. J Clin Pharmacol